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Venice Commission

Overview

The Venice Commission (European Commission for Democracy through Law) is a body founded to help Eastern European countries adopt the Western constitution and constitutional adjudication system after the fall of the Soviet Union. It was founded by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in May 1990 and is now in Strasbourg, France.
Being an advisory body of the Council of Europe on constitutional matters, it has engaged in support for constitutional justice, scrutinizing of elections and referendums, cooperation between constitutional courts and international research activities in the efforts to ensure democracy, human rights and the rule of law.

Venice Commission

Website : www.vevice.coe.int

Composition & Operation

It consists of one individual member and a substitute member designated by the member states. It holds plenary sessions four times a year and has sub-commissions that address certain issues.
Sub-commissions, usually composed of two to three members for each, visit certain countries, when necessary, to investigate and examine their legal issues and report an opinion to the plenary sessions. Upon receiving the report, the plenary session discusses the issues to decide whether to adopt them. An adopted opinion is reported to the Council of Europe. It is up to the concerned country whether or not to adopt the opinion of the Venice Commission. However, the opinions on the legal issues of the Venice Commission have significant effects on the constitutional law, constitutional court act, legislation and amendment of election laws as well as promoting democracy, the rule of law and human rights of the Eastern European countries.

Membership of the Republic of Korea

Former President Kim, Youg-Jun of the Constitutional Court of Korea met then President Pergola of the Venice Commission at the 11th Conference of European Constitutional Courts to have verbal agreement for South Korea to join the Commission as an observer. The country officially became one of the observers in October 1999. In May 2006, then Minister of the Foreign Affairs and Trade sent a letter to apply for membership of the Commission and the country became a member in June 2006 upon decision of the Council of Europe.

Appointment and Activities of Individual Members

Its individual members, who may serve renewable terms of four years, are experienced university professors of public and international law, supreme and constitutional court judges, members of national parliaments and a number of civil servants in a democratic system though they act in their individual capacity. Gianni Buquicchio has been President of the Commission since December 2009. They participate in the plenary sessions, sub-commissions, working group activities, seminars and research activities.
Justice Kang, Il-Won is the individual member and Mr. Ho Chul Kim, Chief Prosecutor of Gwangju High Prosecutors’ Office, is a substitute member. Justice Kang served as the President of the Joint Council on Constitutional Justice and has been serving as a Bureau Member of the Venice Commission since December 2015 with his reelection in December 2017.

Liaison officer

The Venice Commission has liaison officers from the constitutional courts of each country, who are responsible for sending to the Commission precedents of their own courts to publish them in the bulletin and CODICES and sharing their important schedules and news.

Members of the Venice Commission

회원국 현황
Member(61)
Albania Albania Algeria Algeria Andorra Andorra
Armenia Armenia Austria Austria Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Belgium Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brazil
Bulgaria Bulgaria Chile Chile Croatia Croatia
Cyprus Cyprus Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark
Estonia Estonia Finland Finland France France
Georgia Georgia Germany Germany Greece Greece
Hungary Hungary Iceland Iceland Ireland Ireland
Israel Israel Italy Italy Korea, Republic Korea, Republic
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Latvia Liechtenstein Liechtenstein
Lithuania Lithuania Luxembourg Luxembourg Malta Malta
Romania Romania Russia Russia San Marino San Marino
Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey Turkey Tunisia Tunisia
Ukraine Ukraine United Kingdom United Kingdom Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
Kosovo Kosovo United States of America United States of America Netherlands Netherlands
Norway Norway Mexico Mexico Moldova, Republic of Moldova, Republic of
Monaco Monaco Montenegro Montenegro Morocco Morocco
Peru Peru Poland Poland Portugal Portugal
Costa Rica Costa Rica
회원국 현황
Associate Member(1)
Belarus Belarus
회원국 현황
Observer (5)
Argentina Argentina Canada Canada
Holy See Holy See Japan Japan
Uruguay Uruguay
회원국 현황
Special status (3)
EU EU Palestine Palestine
Republic of South Africa Republic of South Africa

2018. 7. Present

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